PGD is also known as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is an Assisted Reproductive Technique used during In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) to increase the possibility of a healthy pregnancy and delivery. In PGD, embryos are diagnosed with any genetic diseases before being implanted inside the uterus for further growth. It is important because abnormal embryo genetics is the most common reason for problems in conceiving.
PGD can opt if one or both partners have a history of hereditary genetic diseases in their family and are at risk of passing on those to their children. PGD ensures that the embryo implanted is free of any abnormalities and the child born will not be born with those genetic diseases.
Pre Genetic Diagnosis uses the technique of Embryo Biopsy to test the embryos for genetic diseases as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Without PGD, embryos for IVF are chosen just based on their visual quality and morphology, which is ineffective in finding out a specific gene mutation that could have passed on from the intended parents to the baby. PGD is also done if either of the parents has problems like-
Before testing the embryos, first, the intended parents are tested for any genetic problems that could be passed on to their child. After this, once the eggs have been fertilized in the lab for IVF, the embryos are allowed to divide into multiple cells for 3 to 5 days. These embryos are then genetically diagnosed via PGD. The process is as follows-
PGD is recommended for those who have a high risk of transferring genetic disorders to their children due to certain reasons, like-
Just like any other medical procedure, PGD also involves certain risks. However, it is riskier to carry on IVF pregnancy without getting PGD done, especially when there are indications of genetic disorders being passed to the baby.
The risks involved in PGD are-