Why should you worry about male infertility?

Why should you worry about male infertility?

Any health condition in a guy that makes it more difficult for his female spouse to conceive is considered infertility in males. Around 13 out of 100 couples can not get pregnant with unprotected sexual intercourse. There are multiple reasons for male infertility and among the various facts, one is that- over a third of infertility cases, the challenge is with the man. This is most usually due to challenges with sperm production or with sperm release.

What Happens Under Normal Conditions?

The man’s body makes tiny cells called sperm. During intercourse, ejaculation typically delivers sperm into the woman’s body.

If you worry about your fertility, you must get a thorough check of your hormonal levels. Sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are formed in the 2 testicles. The testicles are present in the scrotum, a sac of skin hanging right below the penis.

The sperm left the epididymis and entered a different pair of tubes just before ejaculation. These tubes are called the vas deferens. From the epididymis, each vas deferens travels to the bladder’s back in the pelvis. Each vas deferens joins the ejaculatory tube from the seminal vesicle. The sperm combines with the seminal vesicle and prostate fluid as you ejaculate. This forms semen. The semen also travels through the urethra and out of the penis.

The body’s ability to produce and deliver a regular quantity of sperm is essential for male fertility. The sperm goes into the female’s vagina. The sperm journey through her cervix into her uterus to her fallopian tubes. There, fertilization happens when the sperm meets the egg.

What are the causes of male infertility?

Problems can prevent sperm cells from developing. There may be chances that the sperm may get obstacles to swim and reach the egg in a female partner.Even the scrotum’s warmth can impact fertility. Infertility in males is primarily the cause of these following factors:

  • Issues with sperm
  • Varicoceles
  • Retrograde Ejaculation
  • Biological Infertility
  • Obstruction
  • Hormones
  • Medication
  • Issues With Sperm

The most frequent issues are sperm production and development. Sperm could:

  • Not fully develop
  • Be a strange shape
  • Not proceed correctly
  • Manufactured in relatively small quantities (oligospermia)
  • No sperm production at all (azoospermia)

Problems with sperm might result from genetic characteristics. A change in lifestyle may lead to the poor quality of sperms and their quality. Moreover, the specific habits like drug inhaling, smoking, drinking, etc affects your fertility rate. Other factors that contribute to low sperm counts include chronic illnesses including kidney failure, childhood infections like measles, and chromosomal or hormonal issues (such as low testosterone).

Low or no sperm production can also be the reason for damage to the male reproductive system. A blockage in sperm floating quality may happen to at least 4 out of every 10 men who may have been further suffering from azoospermia, or absolute lack of sperm. A blockage in the floating of sperm can also be the cause of any kind of illness or congenital problems.

  • Varicoceles

16 out of 100 guys, they are present with varicoceles issues. They affect more infertile guys than other males (40 out of 100). By obstructing appropriate blood drainage, they damage sperm development. Blood from your belly may be redirected into your scrotum because of varicoceles. The testicles become too heated to produce sperm at that point. Low levels of sperm may result from this.

  • Retrograde Ejaculation

When semen travels backwards in the body, it results in retrograde ejaculation. Rather than exiting through the penis, they enter your bladder. When you experience an orgasm, your bladder’s nerves and muscles fail to contract (climax). Normal sperm may be present in the semen, but when the semen is not of good quantity, the sperms cannot reach the vaginal portion of women.

  • Immunologic Infertility in males

Exactly how antibodies reduce fertility is still unknown. We are aware that they can hinder a sperm’s ability to reach the fallopian tube and enter an egg.

  • Obstruction

Blockage or any kind of obstruction can occur because of recurrent infections, surgery (such as a vasectomy), oedema, or developmental flaws.

  • Hormones

If there is poor sperm development, it may result in the poor circulation of the male hormonal content.

  • Chromosomes

When the fertilization takes place, half of the DNA carriers are sperms. Therefore, if there is any kind of chromosomal change with respect of quality & quantity, it can adversely affect the sperm quality.

  • Medication

Certain drugs may alter sperm function, generation, and delivery. To fight issues, your doctor may prescribe you certain drugs. These issues may include:

  • Arthritis.
  • Depression.
  • Digestion Issues.
  • Anxiety Or Depression.
  • Infections.
  • Blood Pressure.
  • Cancer.

Diagnosis for Male Infertility

Male fertility problems might be difficult to diagnose. Most often, sperm delivery or production issues can be the reason for such infertility issues in men. A thorough history and physical exam are the first steps in the diagnosis. Blood tests and testing on the semen may also be asked for by your healthcare practitioner.

  • Semen Analysis

An everyday lab test is examining semen. The test helps to determine the volume of sperm production and let the doctor help you with your complete sperm quality testing. Sperm analysis refers to the examination of the semen or the sperms, detecting whether sperm are in good condition (e.g., are moving, or having the perfect sperm motility). If the test results show aberrant sperm counts, your doctor or healthcare provider may suggest you perform the second test. You may have to put your reproductive organ into a sterile cup to collect sperm. A sample of semen will help to cross-check the quality of sperms.

  • Transrectal Sonography

Transrectal ultrasonography can be done with the help of ultrasound using the sound waves reflecting the complete physical analysis of the organ. The examination may also include the insertion of a probe into the rectus.

  • Sexual Biopsy

This test is essential when there are chances of no or few sperms in the semen of the man. Both general and local anaesthesia is acceptable for this test. The scrotum has a little cut in it. This is an in-office procedure where you will have to visit the clinic, where the procedure may include the insertion of a probe through the numbed scrotal skin. Here, the biopsy is used by the doctor which further possesses two uses. One is that it helps to collect the sperm and understand the quality and the second is that it helps to determine the causes of infertility issues in men.

  • Hormonal Profile

Your doctor or healthcare provider may also prescribe you a complete check of your hormonal profile. To find out how successfully your testicles produce sperm. High levels could indicate that your testicles are refusing to produce sperm despite your pituitary gland’s best efforts.

Conclusion- How infertility in males can be treated?

Treatment for male infertility depends on causes, and the reasons for infertility. This treatment may require drugs and surgery to retrieve the sperms or overcome the issues of sperm floatment. This would enable conception via regular sex. There are a few considerable therapies and these therapies are of three types:

  • Treatment for Male Infertility Without Surgery.
  • Surgery to Treat infertility in males.
  • Treatment for Male Infertility from Unknown Causes.

Most of the time, outpatient surgery can treat male infertility. Such infertility treatments are performed while sedated by IV or general anaesthesia. Although postoperative discomfort is often minor, recovery and follow-up can differ. Your healthcare professional may help you with a physical examination following varicocele repair. Since they are simply blocked off during surgery to stop unnatural blood flow, the veins often remain swollen. Every three months for at least a year, or until pregnancy, menstrual samples should be analyzed. Ask your doctor about ARTs if your varicocele reappears or if you continue to have difficulty getting pregnant.

As per the Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021, the commercialization of surrogacy has been declared illegal, and also, Gender Selection is banned in India.
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